by 李笑来老师,托福培训名师,艾德睿智留学咨询合伙人

句子之间的自然衔接,主要手段就是使用“返指”:使用代词、或者名词。

中国学生最常犯的错误之一就是用“it”这个代词返指之前的篇章。“it”在英文中有这样几种常见用法: 指代之前的一个单数名词(非人) 作为形式主语 指代一个that引导的名词性从句 指代一个 动词不定式

但是,“it”不能返指前文的篇章。返指前文的篇章应该用“this”或者“that”。然而,即便是“this”和“that”也经常出现含混的情况,所以,还不如直接使用名词指代。

My best friend is using an irrational and ineffective learning model, which let her stumble from time to time, and she is completely unaware of the negative impact of her choice. It’s hard for me to watch this.

这句话里面,this指的究竟是什么呢?其实,换成一个名词就可能非常清楚了: My best friend is using an irrational land ineffective learning model, which let her stumble from time to time, and she is completely unaware of the negative impact of her choice. It’s hard for me to watch her suffer.

一个简单而又实用的建议是,尽量只用代词返指前文的名词,而返指篇章的时候,尽量使用名词,或者“代词+名词”的形式。

根据我个人的教学经验,我发现大多数学生在英语学习过程中就好象没有人曾经提醒过他们“返指”手段在写作中的重要性。其实,补一课也并不麻烦,只不过是把一系列的常用做返指手段的名词强化记忆一番:

nouns which refer back to texts, classing them as types of verbal action:
account, accusation, acknowledgement, admission, advice, allegation, announcement, answer, apology, appeal, argument, assertion, assurance, boast, charge, claim, comment, complaint, compliment, concession, condemnation, confession, contention, correction, criticism, declaration, defence, definition, demand, denial, denunciation, description, digression, disclosure, discussion, endorsement, excuse, explanation, exposition, gossip, information, judgement, lie, message, narrative, objection, observation, plea, point, prediction, promise, pronouncement, prophecy, proposal, proposition, protest, question, reference, refusal, remark, reminder, reply, report, request, response, retort, revelation, rumour, statement, stipulation, story, suggestion, summary, tale, threat, verdict, warning

nouns which refer to ideas and show your feelings about the ideas:
analysis, assessment, assumption, attitude, belief, conclusion, conjecture, concept, deduction, delusion, diagnosis, doctrine, doubt, estimate, evaluation, fear, finding, guess, hope, idea, illusion, inference, insight, interpretation, misinterpretation, notion, opinion, picture, plan, position, reasoning, supposition, theory, thinking, view, viewpoint, vision, wish

nouns which refer to events and are neutral:
act, action, affair, aspect, case, circumstances, context, development, effect, episode, event, experience, fact, factor, feature, incident, issue, matter, method, move, phenomenon, position, possibility, practice, process, reason, respect, result, situation, state, state of affairs, subject, system, thing, topic, way

nouns which refer to events and show your feelings about them:
achievement, advantage, answer, crisis, difficulty, disadvantage, disaster, exploit, feat, nightmare, plight, predicament, problem, solution, tragedy

nouns used to refer to a piece of writing:
chapter, example, excerpt, extract, instalment, item, letter, paragraph, passage, phrase, quotation, section, sentence, statement, summary, table, text, words

– quoted from Egnlish Grammar, Cobuild HarperCollins Publishers

用这些词造句稍微有点麻烦,因为,为了完成“返指”的功用,只造一个句子恐怕不够;用这之中的某一个名词造上一个句子之后,用脑子想象一下这个名词返指前文的究竟是什么……

喜欢 已喜欢 ( 23 ) 读后感 ( 0 ) 分享 扇贝精选
扫描二维码分享到微信
#扇贝精选#笑来寄语:句子之间的自然衔接
发送
#扇贝精选#笑来寄语:句子之间的自然衔接
分享微博成功,3秒后关闭
×
Please login to make a comment.

词根解析——dict

英语中具有明确词根的单词+各种衍生词汇上万个,通过词根词缀和构词法来记忆单词,可以将看起来风马牛不相及的词汇联系起来,增加记忆,大大提高你的学习效率。

志萍版老友记英语笔记之修辞:词缀仿词 "-y"

英语中有一类修辞手法叫做词缀仿词,是指在特定的语言环境中,为满足表达的需要,在原有单词前后加上词缀、临时仿造出新词。词缀仿词在口语中使用率很高,不仅简洁生动,还可以产生幽默诙谐或讽刺挖苦的鲜明效果。

有没有办法在一个月之内达到用英语谈笑风生?

对于口语,很多人表示疑惑——我可以看懂英文小说、报刊,我甚至还发表过英文论文,可是为啥没法痛快淋漓地和别人用英文交流呢?流利的口语表达能力建立在如下三个方面上:词汇量、发音、句型。

英文版“狼人杀”一学就会,套路大公开让你carry全场!

这篇会是一篇满满的干货,主要内容包括两个方面:1. 所有我们平常使用的狼人杀词汇的英文表达;2. 常见的狼人杀套路与技巧大公开。因此,请各位同学好好马克,X老师要开始授课了!

【你问我答】之身体部位相关英语表达(二)

英语中有哪些和身体相关的短语呢?

【你问我答】之动物相关英语表达(三)

“中饱私囊”用英语怎么表达呢?

【你问我答】之食物相关英语表达(六)

“take the biscuit”是“拿走饼干”的意思吗?