by 李笑来老师,托福培训名师,艾德睿智留学咨询合伙人

句子之间的自然衔接,主要手段就是使用“返指”:使用代词、或者名词。

中国学生最常犯的错误之一就是用“it”这个代词返指之前的篇章。“it”在英文中有这样几种常见用法: 指代之前的一个单数名词(非人) 作为形式主语 指代一个that引导的名词性从句 指代一个 动词不定式

但是,“it”不能返指前文的篇章。返指前文的篇章应该用“this”或者“that”。然而,即便是“this”和“that”也经常出现含混的情况,所以,还不如直接使用名词指代。

My best friend is using an irrational and ineffective learning model, which let her stumble from time to time, and she is completely unaware of the negative impact of her choice. It’s hard for me to watch this.

这句话里面,this指的究竟是什么呢?其实,换成一个名词就可能非常清楚了: My best friend is using an irrational land ineffective learning model, which let her stumble from time to time, and she is completely unaware of the negative impact of her choice. It’s hard for me to watch her suffer.

一个简单而又实用的建议是,尽量只用代词返指前文的名词,而返指篇章的时候,尽量使用名词,或者“代词+名词”的形式。

根据我个人的教学经验,我发现大多数学生在英语学习过程中就好象没有人曾经提醒过他们“返指”手段在写作中的重要性。其实,补一课也并不麻烦,只不过是把一系列的常用做返指手段的名词强化记忆一番:

nouns which refer back to texts, classing them as types of verbal action:
account, accusation, acknowledgement, admission, advice, allegation, announcement, answer, apology, appeal, argument, assertion, assurance, boast, charge, claim, comment, complaint, compliment, concession, condemnation, confession, contention, correction, criticism, declaration, defence, definition, demand, denial, denunciation, description, digression, disclosure, discussion, endorsement, excuse, explanation, exposition, gossip, information, judgement, lie, message, narrative, objection, observation, plea, point, prediction, promise, pronouncement, prophecy, proposal, proposition, protest, question, reference, refusal, remark, reminder, reply, report, request, response, retort, revelation, rumour, statement, stipulation, story, suggestion, summary, tale, threat, verdict, warning

nouns which refer to ideas and show your feelings about the ideas:
analysis, assessment, assumption, attitude, belief, conclusion, conjecture, concept, deduction, delusion, diagnosis, doctrine, doubt, estimate, evaluation, fear, finding, guess, hope, idea, illusion, inference, insight, interpretation, misinterpretation, notion, opinion, picture, plan, position, reasoning, supposition, theory, thinking, view, viewpoint, vision, wish

nouns which refer to events and are neutral:
act, action, affair, aspect, case, circumstances, context, development, effect, episode, event, experience, fact, factor, feature, incident, issue, matter, method, move, phenomenon, position, possibility, practice, process, reason, respect, result, situation, state, state of affairs, subject, system, thing, topic, way

nouns which refer to events and show your feelings about them:
achievement, advantage, answer, crisis, difficulty, disadvantage, disaster, exploit, feat, nightmare, plight, predicament, problem, solution, tragedy

nouns used to refer to a piece of writing:
chapter, example, excerpt, extract, instalment, item, letter, paragraph, passage, phrase, quotation, section, sentence, statement, summary, table, text, words

– quoted from Egnlish Grammar, Cobuild HarperCollins Publishers

用这些词造句稍微有点麻烦,因为,为了完成“返指”的功用,只造一个句子恐怕不够;用这之中的某一个名词造上一个句子之后,用脑子想象一下这个名词返指前文的究竟是什么……

喜欢 已喜欢 ( 23 ) 读后感 ( 0 ) 分享 扇贝精选
扫描二维码分享到微信
#扇贝精选#笑来寄语:句子之间的自然衔接
发送
#扇贝精选#笑来寄语:句子之间的自然衔接
分享微博成功,3秒后关闭
×
Please login to make a comment.

词根解析——pli

英语中具有明确词根的单词+各种衍生词汇上万个,通过词根词缀和构词法来记忆单词,可以将看起来风马牛不相及的词汇联系起来,增加机翼,大大提高你的学习效率。本期来讲解词根"pli"

词根解析——关于“大小”(下)

英语中具有明确词根的单词+各种衍生词汇上万个,通过词根词缀和构词法来记忆单词,可以将看起来风马牛不相及的词汇联系起来,增加记忆,大大提高你的学习效率。上期我说到关于“小”的词根,本周我们来讲讲“大”的词根。

词根讲解——数字词根(二)

上期我们讲解了“从一到五”的数字词根,今天我们来讲又百到千的词根。

词根解析——"test"

词根是英语单词构成的核心,代表了单词的中心意义,可以单独成词,也可以彼此组合构成一个单词,或者通过前缀、后缀产生单词词性或释义上的变化。换句话说,词根能决定一个单词的意思,前缀能改变这个单词的词义,而后缀则最终决定一个单词的词性。

如果一生只推一本好书,那一定是这本……

天呐!没想到喜欢看书的扇贝er还真不少!世界读书日那天,我们请大家走心安利一本“对自己影响最深的书”,没想到炸出了一群爱阅读的人和一堆好书。在大家安利的500本书目中,我们挑出了5本好书,真诚地推荐给你,希望你在六月的夏天中读得愉快~

热门中文金曲 X 走心英文翻译,超!搭!的!

确认过眼神,你是爱翻译的人~

【你问我答】之身体部位相关英语表达(十)

“win by a nose”是“靠鼻子取胜”吗?*